Dyslexia is the most common learning disability in the United States, impacting 20 percent of the country’s population. If a child is not diagnosed by the second grade, there is a significant chance he or she will remain undiagnosed until they reach adulthood. By educating yourself on the red flags of this learning disability, you can avoid misconceptions as well as delayed identification of this disability. Early identification of any disorder correlates with improved outcome and prognosis.
Preschool-Aged Red Flags for Dyslexia:
Difficulties with phonemic awareness or the ability to identify and manipulate individual sounds in words are beginning signs that your child may have dyslexia. Examples of phonemic awareness skills are:
Segmenting syllables (e.g., “how many syllables do you hear in butterfly?”)
Rhyming (e.g., “which word rhymes with mat; star or hat”?)
Phoneme isolation (e.g., “in the word sun, is the /s/ at the beginning, middle or end of the word?”)
Sound deletion (e.g., “say cup without the /k/.”)
Other signs include:
Trouble reading single words
Trouble generating rhyming words or identifying which words don’t belong
Reversing letters and words (e.g., tab/bat)
Difficulty identifying sounds at the beginning or end of a word (e.g., “what word begins with /t/; toad or boat?”)
Elementary-Aged Red Flags for Dyslexia:
Once children enter elementary school, the expectations for reading and writing abilities increase significantly. Children not previously identified as being at-risk may begin to exhibit signs as school work becomes more challenging. These children often have average or above average IQ, but demonstrate below grade-level reading and writing abilities.
Difficulty with word finding (e.g., relying on “stuff,” “things” or other generic words)
Difficulty with organization and studying
Trouble with story telling
Avoidance or dislike of reading
Should an individual demonstrate some of these signs, it is not necessarily indicative of dyslexia. Other reading or language disorders may play a factor. However, if these difficulties persist through childhood, it may negatively impact that child’s academic success.
Through early identification, children with dyslexia can begin treatment in phonics-based programs, such as Orton-Gillingham or Wilson. These programs are unique in that the relationships between sounds and letters are explicitly and systematically taught. With consistent treatment, children with dyslexia can learn to compensate for their disorder, as well as begin to enjoy reading and writing.
As children begin to develop their speech and language skills, it is important to remember that speech sounds are acquired in specific patterns around approximate age ranges. Therefore, most children go through periods of development where their overall speech intelligibility is reduced.
In order to understand if a lisp is considered normal, one must first understand what a lisp actually is. Lisps can present themselves in a different manner, primarily as lateral and interdental, with misarticulations primarily on /s/ and /z/, though productions of “sh,” “ch,” and “j” are typically impacted as well. In order to accurately produce these speech sounds, airflow needs to be channeled down the middle of the tongue.
A lateral lisp occurs when the airflow passes over the sides of the tongue, which causes significantly distorted production of the targeted speech sounds. The manner of the production will have a “slushy” quality, and lateralized productions of speech sounds can be difficult to correct.
Another common lisp is the interdental lisp, in which the tongue protrudes between the upper and lower teeth distorting the airflow that is forced through the space during speech production. This type of lisp is often heard as a substituted “th” rather than an accurate /s/ or /z/.
In the preschool years, children are expected to have mastery of early speech sounds, and errors on later-developing speech sounds are considered typical. Therefore, distortions of /s/ and /z/ that present themselves as a lisp are often seen in children this age. However, around the age of five when children enter kindergarten, they should be more accurate with their speech sound production skills.
If a child continues to present with difficulty on particular sounds, further assessment may be beneficial. This is particularly true if the child presents with a lateralized lisp, as speech-language therapy is warranted to help re-mediate the place and manner of the errors. Evaluation is also recommended if the child presents with either inconsistent productions of speech sounds, or is significantly difficult to understand, regardless of age.
https://www.nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Blog-Lisp-FeaturedImage.png186183North Shore Pediatric Therapyhttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngNorth Shore Pediatric Therapy2016-08-25 05:30:332020-06-09 15:17:21Is a Lisp Normal in Preschool?
Imagine that you go to work in the morning and spend your entire day not knowing how to navigate the parameters of your workplace. You’re unsure of your job description, title, and workplace culture….and no one will give you any answers. By the end of the day, you feel utterly exhausted merely as a result of attempting to navigate a world with no structure or boundaries. Now, imagine you’re a child. This is how children with limited play skills might feel as they are expected to respond to situations for which they don’t have the skillset each time they come in contact with a peer.
Play is the single most important mechanism children utilize to learn about their universe. Play provides a framework to explain imaginative and real events in a child’s world. It allows them to learn about independence, manners, and character, as well as build confidence and practice new skills. Yet, some children have difficulty learning how to properly navigate these interactions.
The good news? You can help.
Play at Any Age
Play skills are developed in a progression. Although there are times in which a child may fluctuate between all levels of play, the following indicates the age-appropriate development of peer interactions.
Solitary play (ages 0-2): Child is completely captivated with play and does not seem to notice other children.
Learns through trial and error
Copies other children and adults
Looks at other children playing but does not join in the play
Likes playing with adults as well as by himself/herself
Onlooker play (2-2 ½): Child is interested in other children’s play but does not join in. He/she may ask questions.
Parallel play (2 ½- 3): Child shares the same space with peers but doesn’t actively engage with them.
Begins to use symbols in his play, such as using a stick as a sword
Starts to show some reasoning skills… may still learn by trial and error.
Copies other children and adults’ behaviors and language
Associative play (3-4): Child is interested in pursuing social interactions with peers while they play.
Shows more reasoning skills
Begins to ask “why” and “how” questions
Plays imaginatively, for instance, dress-up
Cooperative play (4+): Children play in groups of two or more with a common goal in mind; they often adopt roles and act as a group.
Shows understanding and uses reason related to experience
Begins to understand simple rules in games
Plays cooperatively, taking turns
Should I Be Concerned About My Child’s Play Skills?
Flexible: child can add onto others’ play schemas*, play story** can change throughout, child does not become distraught if a peer/parent adds their ideas
Atypical or Disordered Play:
Ritualistic: child engages with toy in the same order/manner, every time he/she plays with toy
Difficulty with Generalizations:child has difficulty accepting new patterns or rules, attempts to utilize one general rule for all similar events (i.e. “I know the youngest person goes first in Sorry, so I expect that the youngest person goes first in all games.”)
Repetitive: child performs the same action repetitively with a toy that doesn’t suit its purpose, ie. flipping, stacking, ordering items or repeats the same phrase over & over again while engaging
Limited Interests: child frequently finds a way to steer play story to a few favorite interests
Rigid: may accept when parents and peers join his/her play schema, but only by child’s rules and with his/her interests
Difficulty “bouncing back” from unexpected events in play:may recoil when a peer introduces a dinosaur, for example, when child expected story to progress in a certain direction. May become upset at changes or quit altogether
Avoids eye contact, or eye contact may be fleeting
Often requires prompting for basic communication, i.e. saying hello when approached by peer
Often includes non-reciprocal language: response frequently does not match question
Difficult for child to enter into an already-developed play scheme: two peers are pretending to be firemen, third child wants to join but can only talk about/pretend to be a doctor
*Play schema: diagrammatic presentation; a structured framework or plan
**Play story: the story that is told through the play schema
Parent How-To Guide
If your child has underdeveloped play skills, here are some ways to assist in his/her development to encourage parallel, associative, and cooperative play:
Allow your child time for free play with same-aged peers
Don’t “helicopter” parent during free play, but provide modeling if necessary
Provide plenty of materials to encourage imaginary play, i.e. dress-up clothes, pretend food, cash register
Encourage symbolic play: child engages in imaginary play with an item and calls it something else, i.e. uses a banana as a telephone
Model Feelings & Behavior to Encourage Problem-Solving
Provide your child with words to explain feelings
“Jimmy, it looks like you’re sad because Sally isn’t sharing her toy with you. Let’s tell Sally how you’re feeling together.”
If your child is old enough, encourage him to use the words himself. “Jimmy, you can say, ‘Sally, I am sad because I want to play with that toy too.’”
Starting your modeling sentences with the phrase “you can say…” is a very powerful way to neutrally provide your child with the words he/she may not know how to express
Provide your child with options for independent problem-solving
“Jimmy, do you want to wait until Sally is done with the toy or ask her if she can share it with you?”
This allows the child to choose between 2 options and learn to find solutions independently
Set Expectations. Especially if your child demonstrates rigid behavior!
Be sure to set expectations before engaging in task
“Jimmy, we are going to the playground. At the playground, I expect you to play properly with friends. That means sharing the equipment, speaking nicely, and waiting your turn.”
Give Positive Reinforcement
Encourage proper behavior and play skills by offering both natural consequences and praise.
Consequence, stated before engaging in task: “Jimmy, if you don’t follow the rules we discussed at the playground, we will need to go home immediately.”
Praise, stated after task is completed: “Jimmy, way to go! You followed all the rules by taking your turn and speaking nicely to your new friends. I’m proud of you.”
Seek Outside Help
If your child doesn’t seem to improve with these at-home tips, seek the assistance of an occupational or developmental therapist for hands-on support for both you and your child.
https://www.nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Blog-Play-Skills-FeaturedImage.png186183Jennifer Brownhttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngJennifer Brown2016-07-14 05:30:032016-07-12 15:37:32The Do’s and Don’ts of Play: A Parent’s Guide to Helping Your Child Develop Better Peer Interactions
It might be hard to imagine what mental health concerns may look like for your toddler or preschooler. However, it is important to realize that children experience the same emotions as adults do. They experience happiness, sadness, anger, fear, loneliness and embarrassment, however, they do not always know how to express these feelings in appropriate ways, so it’s important to look for red flags. When their feelings get too big, children do not always have the words to use to express themselves, resulting in using challenging or unsafe behaviors to express these big feelings. These behaviors make learning, play and relationships at home, and in the classroom difficult and can be very distressing and frustrating for everyone involved.
Here is a list of common red flags that can help you to determine if your child needs support:
Extreme distress (crying, tantruming and clinging to you) when separating from you or knowing that they will be away from you.
The symptoms last for several months versus several days
The symptoms are excessive enough that it is impacting normal activities (school, friendships, and family relationships).
The continuation or re-occurrence of intense anxiety upon separation after the age of 4 and through the elementary school years.
Little interest in playing with other children.
Poor body awareness that impacts relationships with peers
Failure to initiate or to participate in activities
Difficulty making eye contact with others
Defiance: Failure to follow rules or listen to directions and is often argumentative with adults.
Overly Aggressive Behavior:
Temper tantrums that last more than 5 to 10 minutes.
Excessive anger through threats, hitting, biting, and scratching others, pulling hair, slamming/throwing objects, damaging property, and hurting others.
Difficulty with Transitions:
Difficulty focusing and listening during transitions
Extremely upset when having to transition from one activity to another. Before or during each transition, your child may cry excessively or have temper tantrums that last more than 5 to 10 minutes.
Excessive Clinginess or Attention Seeking with Adults
Excessive anxiety related to being around new and/or familiar people/situations.
Child freezes or moves towards you by approaching you backwards, sideways or hiding behind you. Your child behaves this way in most situations and no matter how you support them, they continue to avoid interacting with others.
Difficulty completing tasks and following directives on a daily basis.
Easily distracted and has difficulty concentrating or focusing on activities.
Daily Functioning Concerns:
Toileting: Difficulty potty training and refuses to use the toilet.
Eating issues: Refusing to eat, avoids different textures, or has power struggles over food
Sleeping problems: Difficulty falling asleep, refuses to go to sleep, has nightmares or wakes several times a night.
Children can exhibit concerns in the above areas off and on throughout their childhood. It is when these behaviors begin to impact peer and family relationships, cause isolation, interfere with learning and cause disruptions at home and in school that it is time to reach out for support.
Who can help?
Licensed Clinical Social workers (LCSW),
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselors (LCPC),
Marriage and Family Therapists (MFT)
Therapists will work with your child to help them to learn how to handle their big feelings and behavioral challenges. Therapists will use a variety of modalities during sessions including play, art, calming and self-regulation strategies, behavioral therapy, parent-child therapy, and parent education and support. They can also provide parent support and coaching to assist in diminishing the challenging behaviors at home. Often these professionals will collaborate with your child’s school and can provide additional support for your child within the school setting.
https://www.nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Blog-Red-Flags-FeaturedImage.png186183Rebecca Kiefferhttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngRebecca Kieffer2016-06-28 05:30:592019-12-20 20:06:12Social-Emotional and Behavioral Red Flags for Toddlers and Preschoolers
The toddler years are joyful, busy times of great growth for children! These are the years where children are finding their sense of self, exerting their will, and discovering what effects they have on the world. With these new discoveries comes a toddler’s desire for independence driven by a desire to find a sense of control over themselves and their world. Because of this, learning self-help skills such as toilet training can be a stressful time for children and their families especially when you also consider that approaches to teaching a child to use the bathroom independently vary greatly from family to family.
When a child is enrolled in preschool and is in the process of toilet training, the potential for differences in approaches multiplies and another layer of anxiety can build up for children and families. This is where the importance of frequent and clear communication between you and your child’s teachers comes into play. In fact, this ongoing communication should begin even before the toilet training process begins! Some parents are unsure about when is the best time to begin potty training and will rely on the recommendation of a toddler teacher who has likely helped many children and their families with the toilet training process. Other parents have a clear timeline of when they would like to begin the process for their child. Whichever way works the best for you, it’s important to have those conversations with your child’s school. This helps get everyone on the same page and sets the child up for success.
What do teachers want to know?
In order to best support children and families, there are a few pieces of information that are helpful when shared with your child’s school.
What words does your family use when talking about body parts and elimination? If a teacher doesn’t know a family term for something, your child may become confused when the teachers use different vocabulary.
Does your boy sit or stand when trying to use the toilet? Some little boys find it uncomfortable to sit because they don’t like having to direct their penis down and accidentally getting their finger wet. Others don’t like to stand because they become nervous about the potential of falling forwards.
What signals does your child’s body give when they have to use the bathroom? Do they wiggle? Do they stand in a corner? Will they use words to let someone know they need to use the restroom?
How do they react when they have an accident? Let your teachers know if they get embarrassed or afraid that they will get in trouble if they have an accident.
How often do you want your child to try to use the toilet? Some children are able to inform teachers when they have to go, others get so involved in their play that they need reminders to try.
Is your child wearing pull-ups or underpants? If your child is wearing underpants, do they use pull-ups at nap?
Is your child nervous about anything, for example, when the toilet is flushed?
What can your child do independently and what do they need support with? Can they pull up their pants, but struggle with buttons or zippers?
How do you want soiled clothing to be handled? Do you want teachers to keep underpants that have had a poop accident or just throw them away? Do you have a dirty clothes bag you would like the soiled clothes placed in or can teachers put the clothes into a plastic grocery bag? Where do you want the soiled clothes placed to make it easy to find at dismissal time?
Make a communication plan.
Whether your child attends a half day program in which all children are picked up at the same time or they attend a full day program in which children are picked up at various points in the evening, it is important to make sure that teachers and parents are able to connect regarding your child’s day and their progress with using the restroom during the day. Maybe your child has the same teachers the entire day or maybe they have a different set of teachers in the afternoon than they do in the morning. How do you make sure that everyone is on the same page?
Some ideas to help maintain this two-way communication, in addition to face-to-face conversations, include:
Keeping a notebook in your child’s cubby where each teacher and parent can write notes including how many times your child tried to use the toilet, how many times they were successful, and any notes regarding soiled clothes or questions.
Having a toilet use log with times across the top in which teachers and parents make check marks under the times the child tried and went to the restroom.
Sending the teachers a follow up email at the end of the day asking how things went.
When parents and teachers work together and have clear communication, the stress of toilet training can be greatly reduced; everyone ends up working together to help the children feel successful and proud of their latest accomplishment!
Megan Sexton has a master’s degree in child development from the Erikson Institute. She has taught children aged toddler through first grade and is currently the director at Creative Scholars Preschool. Megan believes in the power of play, inquiry, and relationships in shaping a child’s early years.
https://www.nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/BlogToiletTraining-FeaturedImage.jpg186183North Shore Pediatric Therapyhttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngNorth Shore Pediatric Therapy2016-03-21 11:45:222016-03-21 12:04:49Toilet Training While in Preschool? Communication is Key!
The transition form preschool to Kindergarten is one of the first big steps a young child takes in his academic career.
As a parent, you may be wondering what the main differences are between the preschool and kindergarten setting and how to best equip your child for these changes. Although the change in environment reflects just a chronological year of advancement, the expectations are vastly different.
What to Expect in Preschool:
Children are able to expand their play to incorporate peers and develop the skills necessary to gain a greater sense of self and those around them. This might be the first time children are expected to engage with peers, follow directions, and adhere to structure.
Offers more play-based interventions and structured unstructured time (free play, art time where the child can choose what they want do).
Children learn to focus, share, take turns, and listen while others speak.
Language and cognitive skills emerge and strengthen.
What to Expect in Kindergarten:
The expectation is that the child can endure increased structure and will be able to write, utilize proper pencil grip, and engage in rote counting.
There is an emphasis on increased child independence as the student becomes more responsible over his choices.
Children are expected to implement peer problem-solving to avoid tattling and to enhance conflict resolution strategies.
Implementation of self-help and self-advocacy skills are expected.
In some cases, the length of the school day is longer.
To prepare your child for Kindergarten, utilize these strategies to create a smooth transition:
Explore new activities as a family to help your child adjust to change. This will help him to be okay with experiencing the unknown.
Read to your child for 20 minutes a day to foster listening and focusing skills.
Use consistent routines and disciplinary methods to get the child familiar with the fixed systems in the school setting (i.e. understand expectations and how to modify behavior).
Teach child independence through child-friendly clothing (pick out clothes), toileting independence, and setting the expectation that the child will put away toys and coats regularly.
https://www.nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/kindergarten-FeaturedImage.png186183Ali Swillingerhttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngAli Swillinger2015-04-20 13:21:422015-04-21 11:41:55The Transition from Preschool to Kindergarten: What Every Parent Should Know
Finding, applying and getting into preschool in Chicago is a daunting task. Read here for tips on navigating this difficult process from guest blogger Laura Gradman, owner of Chicago Preschool Pro.
Before you start looking for a preschool:
Think about your child. What type of school environment do you think he/she needs? Consider class sizes, philosophy of education, student: teacher ratio and physical environment.
What are your needs as a family? Consider work schedules, other children, and logistical requirements. Remember, you will be traveling this route up to 5 days/week.
What are your goals for your child’s preschool education? How do you assess Kindergarten readiness?
Determine whether you are considering public schools, private schools, or both.
When to start searching for a preschool:
Typically, the admissions process begins in the fall during the school year prior to the one you are applying for. For example, if you would like your child to begin school in September of 2015, you would start now.
Preschool programs can begin to accept children as early as 6 weeks or as late as 3 or 4 years. Do your research to decide at what age you will send your child to school.
Where to start looking for a preschool:
Join the conversation. Utilize online resources, friends, neighbors, moms in baby classes, school fairs/open houses and networks like Bump Club to learn your options.
Learn the lingo. To understand the philosophy behind each school, you must do your research to learn the meaning of terms like Montessori, play-based, Reggio Emilia, Constructivist, Progressive and Classical.
Do the legwork. Find out what the admissions process involves for each school you are interested in. Be mindful of dates and deadlines and stay organized.
Enter the physical space. Most schools require parents to take a tour of their facility as part of the application process. Even if the school you are looking at does not require you to do so, ask to go and see the school. The physical space is a very important part of the school experience.
When looking for a preschool, try not to do the following:
Fall prey to parking lot talk
Choose a school for the wrong reasons
Underestimate yourself or your child
Go to school websites and decide where you might apply.
Most processes begin with a school tour. Sign up or make note of when they are offered if no sign up is necessary.
If magnet cluster schools interest you, apply for a pin # between September 19-December 1.
Download/obtain applications and begin completing them.
Make note of other steps in the process and stay organized.
https://www.nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/kindergarten-class.jpg338507Laura Gradmanhttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngLaura Gradman2014-09-11 13:05:512014-09-11 13:05:51Navigating the Preschool Search in Chicago
If your child is approaching the preschool years, you may start to wonder if she is ready to begin a preschool program. Many thoughts and concerns may be circling through your mind when contemplating this idea. Rest assured that these concerns are normal. Answer the following questions to help you determine whether your young child is ready for a preschool program.
Questions to Determine Preschool Readiness for Your Child:
Is she toilet trained? It is important to consider toilet training when thinking about your child’s readiness to start preschool. Being toilet trained can make the transition to preschool easier and less stressful. Most children in preschool classes are toilet trained and will not be in diapers. This may cause some stress for a child who has not met this milestone. It’s also critical to know that there are some schools with toilet training requirements, so make sure that you have read the information on this topic if you are considering preschool. Read more
https://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.png00Jaclyn Harrishttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngJaclyn Harris2013-08-22 05:22:312014-04-20 13:21:09Is My Child Ready for Preschool?
Preschool children experience anxiety for a variety of reasons including transitions, changes to their routines or disruptions in the home. Some children simply have a higher ‘set’ anxiety level than others. If your preschooler is experiencing anxiety, try these tips to get him feeling happy and calm.
Tips to Decrease Anxiety Levels in Preschoolers:
Model good social skills. When a child sees his parents having meaningful friendships, he will be more inclined to want to make friends of his own.
Act as an intermediary for the child in social situations. Help the child introduce himself to other kids. Encourage the kids to play with toys, or suggest a game. Setting up regular play dates can be helpful. Even if the children don’t play directly with each other, being around other kids can help a child become less shy. Read more
https://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.png00Amy Winerhttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngAmy Winer2013-08-08 06:18:532019-12-20 19:39:00Tips to Help Decrease Anxiety Levels in Preschoolers
Every sound of speech has a place of production, manner of production and can either be voiced or voiceless sounds. Place of production is the accurate placement of articulators. Manner of production is the restriction of airflow in the oral cavity. A voiced sound has the voice box on versus a voiceless sound when the voice box is off. The phoneme /m/ placement of articulators is lips together, the manner is airflow through the nose or a nose sound and your voice box is on. When working with your child on how to produce the /m/ sound, you can refer to it as the humming sound.
Ways to Elicit /m/
Place of Production:
Draw attention to pressing the lips together. This can be accomplished by using your child’s fingers and thumb to hold their lips together. Read more
https://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.png00Allison Rainohttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngAllison Raino2013-04-26 11:23:582014-04-23 17:34:29How to Elicit the /m/ Sound in Your Child’s Speech