The majority of learning disabilities that a child may have are language-based. These include deficits with the child’s reading achievement as well as written expression. Researchers have found that there is a small percentage of children that demonstrate adequate or above average verbal functioning; however, they have significant weakness with their nonverbal reasoning. Researchers and educational specialists have characterized this specific condition as a Nonverbal Learning Disability (NVLD). Currently, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders does not have a specific diagnosis for these children and, instead, these children are typically diagnosed with a learning disorder that is not otherwise specified.
Areas of Cognitive Weakness in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities:
- Visual-spatial awareness
- Visual organization
- Tactile and perceptual reasoning
- Psychomotor functioning
- Nonverbal problem solving skills
- Difficulties with mathematics
- Pragmatic (social) language
- Social interactions
Areas of Strength in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities:
- Rote verbal memory
- Phonemic awareness
- Verbal reasoning
It is important to identify children that have speculated NVLD’s areas of strength and weakness in order to develop the most effective intervention plan. It is often that intervention for these children is multi-faceted and can consist of: social work support to help with socialization and interaction, speech-language therapy to help with pragmatic language functioning, academic tutoring to help with mathematics and executive functioning support and/or occupational therapy in order to help develop visual spatial functioning, tactile-perceptual reasoning and motor abilities.