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Helpful Strategies for Autism in Preschool Classrooms

Preschool is a great time for children to work on social skills, following directions and routines, and pre-academic skills, such as colors, shapes, letters, and numbers.  Children with autism typically lack the appropriate social skills and interactions that typically developing children exhibit.  By integrating your child with autism into preschool, they can work on and improve their social skills.   Here are some strategies that can assist your child with autism in the preschool classroom:

Helpful Strategies For Children With Autism In Preschool:

    • Picture Schedules.  Make sure that there is a picture schedule of daily activities, so that your child is able to see what is happening throughout the day and can refer to it as needed, to stay on track and preschool classroomhelp with transitions.
    • Routine.  Some children with autism like to have a routine, and if there is a change in the routine, it can make them upset.  Try to have a routine in the classroom, and if there are going to be changes, try to tell the child as soon as possible so that they can prepare for this change.
    • Visual Stimuli.  Using pictures and different visual aids benefit children with autism since many are visual learners.  For example: pictures by the cubbies can help them hang up their jacket and backpack, pictures of children sitting in a circle for storytime near the classroom rug is helpful, and pictures of the classroom rules can help the child follow them. These are all great visual aids that can be used throughout the classroom.
    • Keep it Simple.  When giving instructions/directions, make sure to keep it simple, use concrete language, and pair them up with pictures and modeling.  In addition, do not provide too many instructions at once.  For more complex activities, break the instructions down into clear steps.
    • Avoid Distracters. When possible, make sure that the learning environment is not filled with the types of distractions you can control.  Areas that are too noisy, too hot or cold, or that have bright lighting can make it hard for a child to focus and feel comfortable.
    • Coach.  During playtime, try to coach and teach the child how to appropriately ask a peer to play, share/take turns, ask for a toy/item, and be flexible on what to play and who goes first.

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  • One-On-One Aide.  Some schools provide special supports and a one-on-one aide to work with the child.  This aide can provide a lot of teaching and coaching opportunities to help the child appropriately interact with others and engage in different social and academic situations.
  • Buddy System.  Try to pair children up into different groups depending on their level and skills.  You want to make sure that children who excel in certain areas are paired up with those that might need more help and practice in that specific area.  For example, pairing a child with appropriate social skills and who likes to talk a lot with a quieter child offers the two children the experience of learning from each other.  Through example, the quieter child may gain confidence in participating in the group, while the more outgoing student may become better at remaining quiet while the teacher is talking.
  • Reinforcers.  Use items and activities that are reinforcing to the child.  By using stimuli that the child is interested in, you can help them stay more focused and motivated.  Some examples of reinforcers that could be used are: stickers, stamps, and prize boxes with little items that the child can pick from.  In addition, provide praise and reinforcement when the child is appropriately interacting with others, following directions, and accomplishing academic tasks.
  • Homework.  Take the time to work on these skills at home.  Talk with your child’s teacher to find out what academic skills they are working on in the classroom, and be sure to incorporate them into your daily routine at home.  In addition, arranging different play dates and outings for your child will provide the opportunity for your son/daughter to continue to work on social skills in different situations while you coach and guide them as needed.

When having your child in preschool, be sure to keep the above strategies in mind and work with the teacher to implement them in the classroom if they are not already in place.  Also, take the time to practice the pre-academic skills as well as the social skills at home.  A positive experience in preschool for your son/daughter will help lay the necessary building blocks for continued success, both academically and socially, throughout their entire school career.

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What is the Difference Between Aspergers and Autism? | Pediatric Therapy Tv

In today’s Webisode, a pediatric neuropsychologist explains the difference between Aspergers and Autism.

In this video you will learn:

  • What are common symptoms of Aspergers and Autism
  • The main difference between Aspergers and Autism
  • What group Aspergers and Autism belong to

Video Transcription:

Announcer: From Chicago’s leading experts in pediatrics to a worldwide
audience, this is Pediatric Therapy TV, where we provide experience and
innovation to maximize your child’s potential. Now your host, here’s Robyn.

Robyn: Hello and welcome to Pediatric Therapy TV. I’m your host, Robyn
Ackerman.

Today I’m standing here with Dr. Greg Stasi, a pediatric
neuropsychologist. Greg, can you explain to our viewers what the
difference is between Aspergers and autism?

Greg: Sure. Aspergers and autism are both considered to be along the autism
spectrum. These are disorders with significant impairment in a
child’s social functioning, rigidity, and issues with
preoccupation or fixation on certain objects.

The main differential in a diagnostic formulation between autism
and Aspergers is that with Aspergers we have a child who has
normal language development, whereas in autism we have a child
who has significant impairments in their language development.

Robyn: Thank you so much for that explanation, and thank you to our
viewers for watching. And remember, keep on blossoming.

Announcer: This has been Pediatric Therapy TV, where we bring peace of
mind to your family with the best in educational programming. To
subscribe to our broadcast, read our blogs, or learn more, visit
our website at LearnMore.me. That’s LearnMore.me.

Keeping Your Child With Special Needs Safe

How do I keep my child safe?
Sometimes, I wake up in the middle of the night screaming after a nightmare that my child wandered off and I never found him again.  Children with special needs have an even higher chance of wandering off. What do I do to keep him in my sight?
This week, we all read about Kahil Gray, the missing boy from Chicago with autism.  Kahil was found 3 days later, 26 miles from his home.  Kahil has autism and only speaks a few words.  Support for Autism symbolHis parents were lucky that someone spotted him days after he went missing.   What can be done to prevent losing our kids?

How to prevent your child from wandering off:

GPS tracking technology is often associated with fun gadgets and navigation for vehicles, but there are many potential security applications for this type of technology as well. Product and software developers have created a handful of tools to harness the power of GPS tracking for better safety and security, allowing parents to keep track of their children. http://securitynews.hubpages.com/hub/Safety-for-Wandering-Seniors-with-GPS-Tracking

Here are some additional tips to keep the kids from wandering:

  1. Use a tracking/watch device that you can purchase.
  2. Download an app for your child’s iPhone so you can track the phone.
  3. Have the child memorize a plan if he is lost; keep a piece of paper with that plan and have the child practice handing it to people to help him.  He should have several copies of it with him at all times.
  4. Keep medical bracelets on kids that tend to wander.
  5. Alert police even before the child is lost so that they will keep an eye out for your child; many cities now keep a database on special needs children should they go missing.

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What is Echolalia and How Does It Relate To Autism | Pediatric Therapy Tv

In today’s webisode, a pediatric Speech and Language Pathologist sheds some light on what Echolalia is and it’s connection to Autism.  For more information on Echolalia, read this blog: https://www.nspt4kids.com/parenting/echolalia-what-is-it/

In This Video You Will Learn:

  • What Echolalia is
  • How Echolalia relates to Autism
  • When Echolalia is developmentally appropriate

Video Transcription:

Announcer: From Chicago’s leading experts in pediatrics to a worldwide
audience, this is Pediatric Therapy TV, where we provide experience and
innovation to maximize your child’s potential. Now your host, here’s Robyn.

Robyn: Hello and welcome to Pediatric Therapy TV. I’m your host, Robyn
Ackerman. Today I’m standing here with pediatric speech and
language pathologist Deanna Swallow. Deanna, can you explain to
us what is echolalia and how does it relate to children with
autism?

Deanna: Sure. Echolalia refers to the imitation of spoken language. To
a certain extent, echolalia can be typical. For example, when
you have a child under the age of 12 months, we want them doing
a lot of repeating of our gestures and our speech sounds. You
might see children repeating words and phrases up until about
age four.

After a certain point, echolalia is considered atypical. For
children with autism, one of the salient features of autism is
deficits or weaknesses in understanding and use of spoken
language. Oftentimes, children with autism will use echolalia,
and that can be an indicator of weaknesses in spoken language.

There are many different reasons that children will use
echolalia. Sometimes it can be to help them process language.
For example, if I ask a child, “How old are you,” and they say,
“Old are you,” they may be rehearsing that question in their
head to help them answer it. If they do rehearse the question
and then give me an appropriate response, then I know they may
have been using echolalia to help process language.

Some children might use echolalia because they simply don’t know
what to say. They know something is supposed to go here but
they’re not sure what, so they might just repeat what you said
as a means to communicate.

Robyn: Thank you so much for clearing that up, and thank you to our
viewers. And remember, keep on blossoming.

Announcer: This has been Pediatric Therapy TV, where we bring peace of
mind to your family with the best in educational programming. To
subscribe to our broadcast, read our blogs, or learn more, visit
our website at LearnMore.me. That’s LearnMore.me.

iPad and iPhone Apps For Autism

What a difference one year makes in the world of technology!!.

Recently, everywhere you look, people are on their iPads, iPhones, iPods. Imagine if there was a way to help your child improve his/her social skills by using these technological advancements… well NOW THERE IS!  iPad and iPhone application developers have tons of applications to help children of all developmental levels. These applications offer a new method of teaching social and communication skills. Below are a few of my favorite applications that I use almost daily with clients here at North Shore Pediatric Therapy!

Application Name

Description of Application

Benefits

KINDERGARTEN.COM

Here you will find flashcards that help with language building. Most of (if not all) of the images are realistic images.* Actions   * Vehicles  * Rhyming Words  *Feature  * Healthy Habits * Functions  * Foods* Emotions  *Science  * Shapes  * Clothing * the Alphabet * Pretend Play *Zoo Animals  * Sports  *Instruments  * Places * Problem Solving* Receptive Identification. What I like most about these apps are how easy and beneficial they are. Many of the “receptive identification are Feature/Function/Class combined and it is from a field of three.

iTouchiLearn

Puzzles, matching games and various word games. This application really helps with morning routines by using an interactive approach with cartoon characters.

Reward Charts

Here you can add multiple charts, configure chart numbers, add behaviors/activities. This is especially good for families with multiple children and also can be very useful in our social groups.

TapToTalk

This is a starter album to help increase communication Parents can also download their own pictures and sounds. It is very similar to a communication device/pecs

Who Am I?

This provides the learner with 4/5 clues and the learner has to guess which animal you are describing This is great to help promote social conversation while also helping the child with clues about topics.

Animal Fun

This app says the name, the sound the animal makes, and how to spell the name It is great to help prompt social conversation while learning about animals.

iTakeTurns

A tool to help children learn the concept of taking turns Helps children cope with taking turns while practicing this skill

123 dominoes

 

This is a great way to teach colors, color matching, shapes and shape matching. It also has fun music to go along with it.

Learn to Talk

Helps teach children how to speak while using the natural progression of sounds and words. This application really helps with the natural progression of acquiring sounds and words.It begins with high impact words, then expanding meaning by changing intonation of speech, adding vocabulary (nouns and verbs) the developing early syntax and simple word combinations

TimeTimer

Visual Timer This is a great tool to help children with transitions to and from any activity

Conversation Builder    

Allows your child to chose which response they feel would be the correct response and then they get to record their own voice Discriminate between subtle differences which can negatively or positively impact a conversation.
First Then Visual Schedule    Create digital visual schedules with several format options

Avakid: See Me Go Potty

This unique potty training app provides a simple cartoon avatar that resembles your child/children, and then reinforces your child to repeatedly use the potty It teaches your child to go potty . and also has “Go Potty”  narrative showing him/herself successfully complete the whole process of using the potty step by step instructions. There is also an accident scene.

 

 

All of these apps are available to download in the iTunes store. Prices are subject to change. All apps are regularly updated so be sure to check for updates!! If you find an app that you absolutely love, check out the section “Customers Also Bought” and “More iPad Apps from…”  Have fun with these!

If you know of a great app that other parents would benefit from. please leave a comment here with the details!

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Echolalia | What is It?

My child is repeating what I say: Is this normal?

Parents often wonder if it’s normal for their child to repeat things others say. For example, when asked a question, a child might repeat the question back instead of answering it (e.g. Parent: “Do you want the slide?” child: “slide?”). This behavior is commonly referred to as echolalia. Echolalia refers to the imitation of father and young son with echolaliawords spoken by others. It might be a sound, word, phrase, or even an entire sentence. Sometimes echolalia might be immediate (e.g. a child repeats what they just heard), and sometimes echolalia might be delayed (e.g. a child repeats what they heard previously from a conversation or show).

Is it normal for my child to repeat language?

When it comes to determining whether or not echolalia is normal, there are many factors to consider. Imitating and repeating language is a very important part of language development. As children are developing speech and language skills, we want them to imitate what we do and say, including our gestures, facial expressions, sounds, and words. However, as children become more independent using language, echolalia is expected to decrease. After a certain point in development, echolalia is considered atypical and may indicate weakness in language skills. When determining whether or not echolalia is typical, there are many important factors to consider:

Important factors to consider

  • Consider your child’s age. Between 8-12 months, your child should be responding or repeating to your gestures and sounds. Between 1-3 years of age, your child should be repeating words they hear you say, intonation patterns, songs, gestures, and even phrases.
  • Consider the novel language your child is able to use. Between 1-4 years of age, your child should also be expanding the language they can use independently. Between 1-2 years of age, your child’s use of different vocabulary words should be expanding, and between 2-3 years of age, your child should begin putting strings of 2-3 words together in phrases or sentences (e.g. mommy go, more juice, etc).
  • Consider the frequency of echolalia. How often does your child repeat language? Do they ever use words or phrases independently? Can they answer some questions appropriately?
  • Consider when echolalia is occurring. Does it primarily occur when you are giving your child directions? Or when you’re asking questions? Does your child repeat cartoons they hear?

What purpose can echolalia serve?

Echolalia is not simply meaningless repetition, but oftentimes serves a specific function. Here are a few examples:

  • Processing spoken language. Some children will repeat language as a compensatory strategy to process spoken language. For example, when given a verbal direction, a child might repeat the direction out loud before actually following it.
  • Reduced comprehension of spoken language. Some children might repeat language due to difficulty understanding. For example, when asked a question, a child might repeat the question back, instead of answering because they aren’t quite sure what’s being asked of them.
  • Difficulty with expressive language. Some kids might want to communicate, but can’t yet construct their own novel sentence. In order to participate in conversation, they might insert a memorized phrased they’ve previously heard from another person or TV show.

What can parents do to help?

  • Bring your concerns to a speech-language pathologist. If you have concerns about your child’s development, seek help from a licensed speech-language pathologist right away. Rather than wait and worry, a therapist will help you determine whether or not your child’s language is typically developing, and strategies to help intervene.
  • Model appropriate responses to questions. For example, if you ask your child a “who” question, model the appropriate response using varying volume or intonation to show your child that the answer is separate from the question (e.g. “Who is sleeping?… Puppy!”)
  • Use visual support to aid your child’s comprehension of spoken language. As you communicate, use gestures and pictures as much as possible (e.g. Point to your child’s shoes and coat as you tell them “First put your shoes on, then put your coat on”). You can also give your child two choices (e.g. Ask “Do you want milk? Or juice?” as you hold up milk and juice).
  • Encourage turn-taking activities. Language is a reciprocal system that involves back and forth exchanges between communicative partners. Turn-taking activities are an excellent way to lay the foundation for back-and-forth communication.

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New Definition of Autism for DSM

Another firestorm of controversy was unleashed recently as experts continue to argue over proposed changes to the diagnosis of autism and related disorders. The American Psychiatric Association has proposed changes to the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) for the fifth edition that would effectively consolidate Autism, Asperger’s Disorder and autism ribbonPervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified into a unified diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. The changes come, in part, because of the APA’s belief that these disorders share common set of behavioral manifestations that are reliably differentiated from non-autistic disorder; but not well differentiated from each other.

Reasons For The Autism Diagnosis Criteria Change:

In the published rational, that APA stated “A single spectrum disorder is a better reflection of the state of knowledge about pathology and clinical presentation; previously, the criteria were equivalent to trying to ‘cleave meatloaf at the joints’.” This belief reflects emerging data that several similar brain regions develop in a pathological fashion in all three conditions and underlie the similarities between the conditions.

Autism Diagnosis Criteria Change Consequences:

However, the change in criteria may have other consequences. Fred Volkmar, MD, director of the Yale Child study Center and a leading expert in the field released results from his upcoming study that posited that changes in criteria could lead to as many as 50% of subjects in previous studies being eliminated from the spectrum and facing an end to needed services. While others have challenged this assumption, there is little doubt that a more narrow definition is being sought in part to limit the expansion of children meeting criteria for one of the pervasive developmental disorders. The CDC indicates that current estimates of autism and related disorders is about 1:150 children. However, studies have reported rates as high as 1:90 depending on the methods used in establishing the diagnosis.

Other experts in favor of the new DSM criteria contend that since some states do not provide the same level of care to children with PDD NOS and Asperger’s Disorder, rolling these conditions into an Autism Spectrum Disorder may actually increase access to care in some states.

How This Changes The DSM:

What seems to be lost in this discussion is the paradigm shift proposed to the structure of the DSM. Historically, most categories of disorders (such as Depressive, Anxiety, Amnestic, Substance Use, etc) are made based on behavioral characteristics as opposed to objective data or lab findings and all have maintained a “Not Otherwise Specified” category to allow for partial symptom presentations or atypical patterns that would still fall under the general heading. This format is consistent for the current range of Pervasive Developmental Disorders including autism. The new spectrum model is a departure from existing diagnostic nomenclature and the rational for this has not been explained. Imagine if spectrums were used for all conditions. Depressive Spectrum Disorders could range from a bad week on one end to inpatient hospitalization and suicidal ideation on the other. Researchers would simply treat them all as a continuum of severity. This does not happen mainly because differences in the onset, treatment and prognosis of each depressive disorder are very different even though the characteristics of dysphoria, loss of interest and behavioral changes may be similar. Clearly differences in diagnoses within categories are possible based on factors other than behavioral characteristics.

Supporters of the new DSM criteria may also be undervaluing the neurological and genetic markers currently under study. Recent evidence has suggested high rates of seizures and EEG abnormalities in autism and PDD NOS not seen in Asperger’s syndrome. Numerous genetic disorders have now been shown to have increased risk for autistic symptoms though none have been shown to have increased risk for Asperger’s Disorder. Accelerated head growth, ventricular abnormalities and pathological development of the language centers are all commonly found in autism and PDD, though not frequently present in Asperger’s Disorder. Conversely, neurological conditions that impact right hemisphere function show marked similarities to the nonverbal learning difficulties found frequently in Asperger’s Disorder. Even birth order, high risk pregnancies and prenatal complications are over-represented in autism and PDD NOS though all these biological markers were not considered in the spectrum model currently proposed.

Ultimately, continued research is needed to evaluate the similarities and differences in these conditions and many of us in the field are concerned that lumping related conditions together will weaken this process and potential our understanding of the root causes of these disorders. However, there is no denying that the ongoing discussions related to changes in the diagnostic nomenclature have brought needed attention to escalating rates of these diagnoses and the need for standardization.

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Positive and Negative Reinforcement Tips for Play Dates

With the use of positive and negative reinforcement, parents can help increase appropriate interactions among children and have play dates be more enjoyable for both children and parents. As a quick review (you can read my previous blog explaining the differences between positive and negative reinforcements here), positive reinforcement works by presenting a motivating/enjoyable item to the child after he/she Toddlers Playing A Gameexhibits the desired behavior, resulting in this behavior happening more often in the future. Whereas negative reinforcement is when a certain stimulus/item is removed after the child exhibits the particular behavior. The likelihood of the particular behavior occurring again in the future is increased because of removing/avoiding the negative stimuli. Below are some helpful tips that parents can utilize to help play dates run more smoothly.

Positive reinforcement on a play date:

• A play date can be seen as a positive reinforcer to a child if he/she enjoys activities that require other children/players. If they are an only child or a child with siblings not near to their age, a play date would be very reinforcing to them. The child would want more play dates in the future so that they can play games they enjoy.

• Play dates can also be a positive reinforcer to parents because of having access to other adult contact. Being able to interact with other adults, engage in adult conversation, and receive a little break can result in parents wanting to initiate and setup more play dates for their children.

• When a child is appropriately interacting and playing with another child, provide lots of verbal praise contingent on what he/she did.

  1. “Nice job playing with child’s name!”
  2. “Great work sharing the blocks!”
  3. “Awesome job handing the dice to child’s name!”

• Along with verbal praise you can also give high-fives, fist pounds, and pats on the back for appropriately playing with other children. However, be sure that these are reinforcers that your child likes to receive. If your child finds these types of contact uncomfortable, initiating them could result in your child changing his/her behaviors.

• Other tangible items that can be used with verbal praise are stickers, stamps, and candy. These items can be given throughout the play date when a child is appropriately playing and interacting with others.

Negative reinforcement on a play date:

• If a child is often interrupted while playing at home because he/she is required to intermittently do chores or non-preferred activities around the house in between fun activities, the child will be more likely to want play dates. When on a play date the request to do chores or other housework will be removed, resulting in the child wanting to continue future play dates.

• Some children do not like to be constantly watched, for these children you can use negative reinforcement to help increase appropriate play interactions. When the child is playing appropriately remove yourself from the situation and let your child continue to play. Periodically check in on them to make sure that they continue to do well.

• Play dates can be a negative reinforcer for parents whose children require a lot of attention and undivided one-on-one time. By having other children to play and interact with, the parent can have a break from providing undivided attention. It is more likely, that in the future, the parent will want to continue to schedule more social interactions for their children.

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Where To Go If Your Child Has Been Misdiagnosed

Parents come to professionals in order to ascertain what is going on with their child.  As a neuropsychologist, the two most common questions I hearmother upset with child are:What is wrong with my child? And How do I fix it?  

A diagnosis will help clarify the symptom characteristics that the child exhibits which in turn will lead to developing the most effective interventions and accommodations for that child within the home, school, and private clinic settings.

Many times parents question the appropriateness of a diagnosis that was given to their child.  It is important to understand that there are several factors that can lead a clinician towards an inappropriate diagnosis or a diagnosis that is not the best fitting based upon the child’s symptom characteristics.

How Assessments Are Conducted:

An evaluation constitutes several hours out of one day of your child’s life.  Many factors impact the child’s performance during the testing, including;

  • Lack of appropriate sleep the night before
  • Being hungry during the evaluation
  • Anxiety over the testing situation

How many of those factors contributed to the diagnosis that was handed to the child?  Second, did the diagnostician receive or ascertain all appropriate information.  Did that individual receive information from the school, past medical records, detailed information regarding the child’s early development?  You are your child’s best advocate.  As much as any diagnostician may know about the responses on the testing, the response to the testing as well as explanations for the testing has to gel with you.  If you are uncomfortable with a diagnosis, ask questions.  Explain to the diagnostician that the behaviors that were observed are not consistent with what is observed on a daily basis.  Work as a team to figure out what lead to the discrepancy between actual behavior and observed behavior/test scores.

If you do not feel that your questions were answered with a diagnosis or are hesitant to follow through with the interventions that were offered, it is then recommended to seek a second opinion.  Oftentimes a second set of eyes, even in the form of reviewing the report/test performance can help solidify the diagnosis that was given or help establish what additional testing/information would be needed.




schedule-a-neuropsych-consultati



Teaching Turn Taking

While sitting at the park you begin to wonder why it appears to be so effortless for other kids to enjoy playing and interacting together when your child has a difficult time with what seems to be such an easy activity. Relax, we have all Kids taking turnsbeen there.

Teaching turn taking is a challenge for all kids and is even more difficult for kids on the autism spectrum. I say it is difficult but NOT impossible!

Strategies to help your child engage in turn taking activities:

Rule-based games:

There are several types of activities that involve turn taking. Rule based games are simply just board games. This is probably one of the easiest games to use to teach turn taking. It is important to teach your child the rules of the game and more importantly the outcome of the game. Since these games are predictable, children tend to understand it better because there are no surprises and they know the expectation.

You can also adapt these types of games depending on your child. If your child has difficulty with fine motor skills, you may choose different game pieces to use. There are several Iphone/Ipad applications called TurnTaker that helps prompt your child to know that it is their turn. Rule based games are also a great tool to help facilitate reciprocal conversation and appropriate use language.

Pretend Play:

Another easy way to teach language to all children is through the use of pretend play. During this time, most kids take on different roles and use these roles to develop a theme. It will provide your child with multiple opportunities to use the language that they are acquiring. It also gives them control over what happens next.

Once a “script” has been developed, it is important for you to begin to change parts of the script or involve others.

Cooperative Activities:

This is most commonly seen at schools or homes with other peers/siblings. I like to teach this by having two or three children working on the same project, such as a painting-but only allowing them access to one or two paintbrushes. This forces the children to ask each other for the brushes. You can also teach this by giving each child a puzzle to complete, but giving the pieces to another friend in which they have to ask each other for. If your child is non-verbal, you can teach them to point or use PECS pictures to mand for the pieces.

Tips for turn-taking activities:

  1. Make sure to use social stories whenever possible. Social stories are dialogues that are easy for the child to read and follow. It should be short, detailed, and specific.
  2. Modeling. You can use yourself or other peers to model the correct behavior.
  3. Visuals. Use visuals to help your child understand what is expected of him/her. It can also be used to help teach the rules of the game. Example: If playing Guess Who, you can make a picture prompting them with questions to ask (picture of boy and girl, brown hair vs. blonde hair etc).

Feel free to leave a comment with your turn-taking strategies and stories.