It is common for young children to make certain sound substitutions as their speech and language skills are developing. One example is substituting /t/ for /k/ (e.g. saying “tar” instead of “car”); another is substituting /d/ for /g/ (e.g. saying “do” instead of “go”). By the age of 3, however, most typically-developing children are able to accurately produce the /k/ and /g/ consonant sounds.
If your child is having difficulty with these sounds, first try some tricks to work on the /k/ sound. Once your child has mastered the /k/ sound, she is ready to work on /g/. /k/ and /g/ are considered “cognates,” meaning that they are produced in the same place in the mouth, with the back of the tongue elevating towards the roof of the mouth. However, /k/ is voiceless, meaning it is produced without using your voice, and /g/ is voiced, meaning it is produced with your voice on. Read more
https://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.png00Mary Bremerhttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngMary Bremer2013-10-13 16:49:402014-04-20 11:23:10Helping Your Child Produce the /G/ Sound at Home
Involves counting 1-20. Each number coordinates with an activity that illustrates language concepts
$2.99 on iTunes for iPhone/iPad and KindleFire/Android
Visual cues (what mouth, lips, tongue, etc. are doing) for production
Tips for producing the sound
Other information about a selected sound
Watch a virtual mouth as it produces selected sounds. This application also provides tips for producing the sound and age for when we expect mastery of each sound.
Free on iTunes for iPhone/iPad
My PlayHome Lite
Vocabulary (around the house)
Manipulate people and things inside an interactive home (i.e. make Mom drink water, put Dad behind the couch, make the boy jump on a chair).
Free on iTunes for iPad (full version, $3.99). $2.99 on Android
Speech sounds in words, sentences and stories in all positions of words (i.e. initial, medial and final). Choose from flashcards or matching games. Easy to keep track of accuracy and progress.
Free to download on iTunes for iPhone/iPad (additional sounds $2.99 each).
Expressive language (grammar, syntax)
Put 3-4 picture sequences in the correct order. Includes 100 sequences.
$2.99 on iTunes for iPhone/iPad
Blue Whale- NACD
Apraxia and articulation (CVC productions only)
Imitate consonant-vowel-consonant (“CVC”) productions. 8 levels of complexity included.
$4.99 on iTunes for iPad. Also available for $4.99 for Kindle, Android tablets and Nook.
Describe It to Me
Complements EET program (Expanding Expression Tool). App can be used both expressively (e.g. to generate ideas), or receptively (e.g. correctly select or point to various objects’ categories, function, parts). Customize vocabulary given child’s needs, as well as skills targeted (categories, parts, etc).
$9.99 on iTunes for iPad (free sample on iTunes).
Full Social Skills Builder
Identifying appropriate responses (making comments, asking for information)
Videos are organized according to age group (school age, adolescent). Watch videos in different environments (school, community). Child answers 3-5 multiple choice questions following video.
$14.99 on iTunes for iPhone/iPad (free sample on iTunes).
https://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.png00Lisa Vanselowhttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngLisa Vanselow2013-09-12 05:00:002014-04-20 12:39:31Our 10 Favorite Speech and Language Apps for Kids
Every sound of speech has a place of production, manner of production and can either be voiced or voiceless sounds. Place of production is the accurate placement of articulators. Manner of production is the restriction of airflow in the oral cavity. A voiced sound has the voice box on versus a voiceless sound when the voice box is off. The phoneme /m/ placement of articulators is lips together, the manner is airflow through the nose or a nose sound and your voice box is on. When working with your child on how to produce the /m/ sound, you can refer to it as the humming sound.
Ways to Elicit /m/
Place of Production:
Draw attention to pressing the lips together. This can be accomplished by using your child’s fingers and thumb to hold their lips together. Read more
https://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.png00Allison Rainohttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngAllison Raino2013-04-26 11:23:582014-04-23 17:34:29How to Elicit the /m/ Sound in Your Child’s Speech
Speech sound development varies greatly between boys and girls as well as between ages. Below are two charts that provide information about age of acquisition of speech sounds. Speech Pathologists have researched the age of acquisition of consonant sounds in Standard American English for many decades. Each study found slightly different results regarding the age of mastery. I have provided the norms listed from the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation, 2nd Edition (GFTA-2). The GFTA-2 has been a widely-used articulation assessment for over 30 years. The age of mastery was determined by 85% of the sample population having the target sound mastered in the initial, medial, and final position of words. You can view a chart below with each sound and the typical age of mastery.
These charts should be used as a reference, not as a definitive means of determining if speech services are warranted. If your child is difficult to understand or is experiencing challenges with pronunciation of sounds, please contact a licensed speech language pathologist for a full evaluation.
Goldman, R., Fristoe, M., & Williams, K. (2000). Goldman fristoe test of articulation supplemental developmental norms. (2 ed.). Circle Pines: American Guidance Service.
https://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.png00Allison Rainohttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngAllison Raino2013-01-23 12:16:192014-04-26 10:53:52Acquisition of Speech Sounds by Age
When your child’s frustration with articulation means something more
How speech therapists check articulation based on age
https://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.png00Robynhttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngRobyn2013-01-17 09:52:002014-04-26 11:04:343 Signs Your Child Has An Articulation Disorder | Pediatric Therapy Tv
At a time when families are seeking treatment for their children, they may hear terms like “speech” or “language” and wonder, what’s the difference? Many children will struggle with both speech and language aspects of communication, and it is important that families understand the distinction.
“Speech” can be thought of as verbal communication. It is the set of sounds that we make (using our voice and our articulators) that comprise syllables, words, and sentences. Speech alone carries no meaning; it is merely sound.
Speech sounds emerge at different ages, and most children have all sounds mastered by age 9. Common speech errors occur when a child omits sounds (ex. “ba” for “ball”) or substitutes one sound for another (ex. “wabbit” for “rabbit”). If you have questions about typical speech milestones, please see this blog
“Language” encompasses how we use speech to formulate sentences in order to communicate. Language also consists of three parts:
Pragmatics (social communication or rules of communication)
Children may have difficulty with one or more components of language, as indicated by children choosing the wrong word, having a difficult time understanding ideas and concepts, and struggling with appropriate grammar when speaking or writing. Many older children may have difficulty decoding social language such as irony, sarcasm, or hidden meanings, which can negatively affect their ability to make and maintain friendships.
Communication is comprised of speech and language. Children struggling in one or more areas of communication may have difficulty being understood by both familiar and unfamiliar communication partners, making it more difficult for their wants and needs to be met. These difficulties may also create problems in school, both academically and socially.
Intervention can help children with difficulties in these areas. Speech-language pathologists can conduct evaluations and create plans that help to reduce both short-term and long-term effects of speech and/or language disorders. At NSPT, we want to see your children blossom, so please contact us if you have any questions about your child’s speech and/or language development!
https://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.png00Jaclyn Schneiderhttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngJaclyn Schneider2012-12-26 09:59:082014-04-26 11:40:44Speech and Language: What is the Difference?
The cause of premature labor is not fully understood. However, there are certain risk factors that can increase the likelihood of premature labor: a woman that has experienced premature labor with a previous birth, a woman that is pregnant with multiples (twins, triplets, etc), and a woman with cervical or uterine defects. Certain health problems can also increase the risk of premature labor, including diabetes, high blood pressure and preeclampsia, obesity, in-vitro fertilization, and a short time period between pregnancies.
What are the effects of being born pre-term?
In addition to multiple medical complications, a baby that is born before 37 weeks of gestation is at risk for developmental problems in gross motor skills, fine motor skills, sensory integration, speech and language skills, and learning. The baby may take longer to reach specific developmental milestones or need help to reach those milestones. The earlier babies are born, the more at risk they are for having delays. Each child is different as well, and no two preemies will be delayed in exactly the same manner.
https://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.png00Leida Van Osshttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngLeida Van Oss2012-11-23 13:28:272014-04-26 15:24:51Are Premature Babies Delayed?
A child may have an articulation disorder if they are deleting sounds (e.g., saying “do” for “dog”), substituting sounds (e.g., “dat” for “cat”), adding sounds (e.g., “balue” for “blue”) or distorting sounds (e.g., “thpoon” for “spoon”). In general, there is a range of typical speech-sound development. Most children are 90% intelligible to a wider range of communication partners by the age of four. If you are concerned about your child’s speech intelligibility or articulation, it is best to seek the advice of a licensed speech-language pathologist who will conduct a formal assessment. This formal assessment will involve looking at both speech and sound production and sound error patterns or distortions.
What Qualifies As An Articulation Disorder?
There are many factors that may contribute a child’s diagnosis of having an articulation disorder such as a medical diagnosis or illness (i.e., including neurological disorders, genetic syndromes and developmental disorders), the development and structure of the oral mechanism, exposure to adult language models and/or hearing loss. Some common articulation errors include substituting /w/ for /l/ or /r/, distortion of /s/ as /th/ with the tongue
protruding on the sides or out the front of the mouth and de-voicing, using a /k/ for /g/. Once your child has been formally diagnosed with an articulation disorder, you may be wondering as to what articulation therapy will consist of?
What Is Articulation Therapy?
Initially, a speech-language pathologist will determine which sounds will be most beneficial to target in terms of generalizing to other sounds and overall speech intelligibility. The process of therapy will begin by teaching the sound or sounds in isolation. This isolation process will be able to teach the accurate production in terms of placement in the mouth and movement of the articulators. Once production of the sound is mastered, the speech pathologist will follow a hierarchy of more complex language targets to generalize the sound to words, phrases, sentences, and, eventually, conversational speech. A hierarchy of speech levels includes mastering the production of the sound in that context at 80% accuracy or higher across a number of sessions.
A traditional speech therapy hierarchy may resemble the following:
Sounds in isolation
Sounds in words (i.e., all word positions: initial, medial and final)
Sounds in phrases
Sounds in sentences
Sounds in reading/writing
Sounds in spontaneous conversational speech
Articulation therapy involves significant repetition and targeting of the sounds in error. Although drills are often targeted, a speech pathologist will use a variety of methods to target sounds and keep your child motivated. Once the sound has been mastered at all levels of the hierarchy, it is likely to be remedied with minimal maintenance needed in order to support the best production.
Are we there yet? Are we there yet? How much longer? Are these commonly heard phrases in your car? It’s summertime and a road trip is just around the corner.
Learn 5 activities for car rides that are not only fun, but a great way to encourage language skills on the go!
I Spy: “I spy with my little eye…” Use this game to target the following skills:
Articulation: See if you can find objects, restaurants, stores, etc. that begin with the sound your child is working on in speech therapy.
Receptive language: Ask your child to find 5 items outside the car that belong to a certain category. For example, “Can you find 5 different animals?”
Story Time: Making up silly stories can make for a fun ride! Ask your child to make up a story using ideas, activities, or characters he sees out the window. Be sure the story follows an appropriate sequence of events. This activity can also be a team game. Each person in the family takes turns adding a sentence to the story!
Camping Trip: This is a game to get the whole family involved in your child’s language development. The game begins with one person saying, “I went on a camping trip and I brought…” The frist person states an item that begins with the letter A (apple). The following family member repeats the phrase and adds his own item beginning with the letter B (“I went on a camping trip and I brought an apple and a bouncy ball”). See how far down the alphabet you can get while you target auditory memory, attention, and phonemic awareness!
https://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.png00Kelli Kalashttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngKelli Kalas2012-08-17 15:08:262014-04-26 22:55:185 Activities to Promote Language Use in the Car
The /r/ phoneme is one of the most commonly mis-articulated sounds, and it can be one of the most challenging sounds to correct. Many of the sounds we produce are visual, which is very helpful for school-age children.
One of the reasons /r/ is so hard to teach is because the child is unable to see what their tongue looks like or where it is inside the mouth. In addition, the way in which the tongue is positioned in the mouth for an accurate production of /r/ varies from person-to-person.
How the “R” sound is formed:
The front part of the tongue may be “retroflexed”, which means that the tongue tip is pointing slightly up and back, behind the teeth.
The tongue may be “bunched”, which means that the middle of the tongue is bunched in the middle area of the mouth. The sides of the tongue must press against the back teeth or molars for both the “bunched”and “retroflexed” tongue positions.
The /r/ phoneme is even more complicated because the pronunciation depends on where the sound falls in a word. The /r/ can be prevocalic (comes before a vowel, “rabbit”), intervocalic (between two vowels, “cherry”) or postvocalic (after a vowel, “butter”). The prevocalic /r/ is the only case where /r/ is considered a consonant. The other /r/ sounds are known as “r-colored vowels”.
Elicitation techniques for /r/:
Using hand gestures – Hold one hand horizontally to symbolize the tongue, and hold the other hand underneath. Using the hand on top, show the tongue movement necessary to produce /r/. By cupping the hand, you’re showing the tongue tip is up and slightly back.
Shaping /r/ from /l/ – Tell your child to make an /l/ sound. From there, they should slide their tongue along the top of their mouth (hard palate), and this will inevitably turn into the retroflexed tongue position.
Shaping /r/ from /oo/ – Have the child say “oo” as in the word “look.” While saying the “oo” sound, tell the child to move his tongue back and up slowly – Using your hand to show this movement can be helpful!
Shaping /r/ from /z/ – Have the child prolong the “z” sound. Then tell the child to move his/her tongue back slowly while opening the jaw slightly. Remind the child to keep the back sides of the tongue up against the upper teeth.
Using animal sounds (Always model these sounds for the child first.)
Rooster crowing in the morning, “rrr rrr rrr rrrrrrrrrr”
Cat purring, “purrrrrr”
Tiger growl, “grrrrrrr”
Using a silent /k/ – Have the child open their mouth and make a silent /k/. Then have him attempt the growling sound.
Changing jaw position with /l/ – Have the child produce the /l/ sound, and while saying this sound, pull the lower jaw down slowly until he reaches the correct position for /r/ – An adult can pull the jaw down gently if the child is having a difficult time lowering it down slowly.
Eliminating the /w/ – If the child is using a /w/ sound for /r/- Tell the child to smile – you can’t make a /w/ sound when you smile!
Other ways to help:
Be a good model – Restate what your child said and say the /r/ correctly.
Work on discrimination – Say an /r/ word correctly or incorrectly and see if your child can recognize the difference between a “good” /r/ sound and a “could be better” /r/ sound.
Talk to a certified speech language pathologist (SLP)
When to consult a speech language pathologist:
The age range for mastery of the /r/ sound is quite large. Many children master the sound by age five and a half, while others don’t produce it correctly until age 7. A general rule of thumb is that if they aren’t pronouncing it correctly by the first grade, seek advice from a licensed speech language pathologist.
https://www.nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Blog-Teaching-R-FeaturedImage.jpg186183North Shore Pediatric Therapyhttps://nspt4kids.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngNorth Shore Pediatric Therapy2011-07-14 12:46:542017-09-25 13:37:24Tackling Trouble With R: Exercises to Practice “R” Pronunciation With Your Child