Children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may face many obstacles in the classroom. Structure and consistency are the two main keys to success for children with ADHD, but each case presents with its own challenges and accommodations should address the unique needs of the individual student.
The following are examples of what a child with ADHD may present in the classroom and associated accommodations:
For a student presenting with difficulties sustaining attention and following directions:
- Instructions should be kept brief and specific and presented one step at a time.
- Maintain eye contact with child while presenting instructions and have the child “teach” the instructions back to the teacher.
- Reduce task length (i.e., focus on quality of work rather than quantity) or break complex tasks into smaller pieces.
- Seat the child near the teacher and away from distractions such as doors, windows, or other students who may be disruptive.
- Provide a “quiet zone” for the student to complete tests or in-class assignments.
- Use verbal cues or signals as behavioral prompts when the child falls off task.
- Set time limits or “challenges” for completing tasks.
- Provide visual prompts for classroom routines.
For a child presenting with excessive activity and/or impulse control:
- Allow the child to stand near his or her desk or kneel in his or her chair during seated work as long as no disruption is caused.
- Use instructional approaches that encourage active responding such as talking, moving, or working at the board.
- Provide breaks for directed movement such as passing out materials.
- Reward short periods of waiting or on task behavior and gradually increase the period a child is successful.
- Encourage non-disruptive activities such as reading or doodling during times of day that have proven problematic.
- Clearly state rules and expectations, and clearly state positive and negative consequences for behaviors. Review these rules often and post visual reminders.
All children will benefit from positive feedback, reinforcement for small improvements, frequent opportunities for active participation, and assignments related to the child’s interests. Additionally, established routines and schedules, along with both verbal and visual reminders, will help any child to be successful in the classroom environment. Most importantly, remember not to assume that a failure to follow instructions is due to a lack of effort or an intentional failure to pay attention, nor is overactivity or impulsive behavior intended as an act of defiance.
NSPT offers services in Bucktown, Evanston, Highland Park, Lincolnwood, Glenview, Lake Bluff, Des Plaines, Hinsdale and Milwaukee. If you have questions or concerns about your child, we would love to help! Give us a call at (877) 486-4140 and speak to one of our Family Child Advocates!